by Dr. Lawrence
October 2022, LD Wilson Consultants, Inc.
All information in this article is for
educational purposes only. It is
not for the diagnosis, treatment, prescription or cure of any disease or health
An entire book could easily be written
about the ratio of sodium to potassium on a hair tissue mineral analysis. Dr. Eck called this ratio the vitality ratio. Earlier in his life, he called it the life-death
ratio, as it is so important.
It could also be called the electrical ratio or the internal ratio.
Na/K on a retest is completely different from the Na/K on an initial test. Most of this article applies only to the Na/K on an initial
On a retest, the Na/K ratio can
swing wildly from high to very low as body chemistry rebalances, as the body
eliminates toxic metals, and as the body retraces traumas. These swings do not mean much, except
that a lot of change is going on inside the body.
What matters is to stay on the development
program, and one’s healing will progress.
ratio. Dr. Eck found that an ideal hair
sodium/potassium ratio is about 2.5 in humans. We find that a good range is between about 2.4 and up to
about 4 or even 5 in a human being.
In an animal, the ideal is closer to 0.5. In plants, it is closer to 0.1. This is important from an electrical standpoint. The sodium/potassium ratio is a measure of the
electrical potential across the cell walls.
NOTE: It is critical that the hair sample
is not washed at the laboratory for accurate sodium and potassium
readings. At this time, we believe
that only Analytical Research Labs offers the hair mineral test without washing
the hair at all at the laboratory.
We also prefer Analytical
Research Labs because their graph is easier to read, the readings tend to be
more accurate, out of range numbers are automatically repeated at no charge,
and their program recommendations are better.
THEMES BY WHICH TO UNDERSTAND THE SODIUM/POTASSIUM RATIO
Adrenal strength indicators. Sodium and potassium are both
associated with the activity of the adrenal glands. Aldosterone, an adrenal cortical
hormone, causes sodium retention and affects serum potassium as well.
elevated sodium/potassium ratio is an indicator of some adrenal strength in most cases.
low sodium/potassium ratio is an indicator of adrenal weakness. This is the case regardless of the levels of sodium and
charging and discharging, and the cell membrane potential. Sodium is pumped out of the cells, while potassium is pumped into the cells by the
so-called sodium pump mechanism.
This causes an electrical charge or potential across all cell
membranes. It is very important
for our health.
A higher sodium/potassium ratio
is associated with a higher electrical charge on the cells or a charging
state. A low sodium/potassium
ratio is associated with a discharging state and a lower electrical potential
between the inside and the outside of the cells. Many factors can influence this, such as the condition of
the cell membranes, and more.
However, the Na/K ratio is a good overall indicator of the electrical
balance of the cells in relation to their extra-cellular environment.
This is to be contrasted to the
calcium/magnesium ratio which measures the electrical
potential or charge of a person with respect to his or her
extra-corporeal or external physical and other environment. It is an interesting comparison that
bears out in practice.
Yin and yang. A higher sodium/potassium ratio is
definitely more yang. A lower
ratio is definitely more yin in nature.
A movement indicator. The idea of movement is that one can
tell how a person is moving ahead in one’s life from certain indicators on a
hair mineral analysis. This is a
subtle concept, but very useful for clients and practitioners, at times.
When elevated, the
sodium/potassium ratio is associated with movement in the proper direction, and
When low, the ratio is
associated with reversal of movement, slowing of movement, and exhaustion. Reversal or backward movement is explained
below in more detail.
Love versus will. Both sodium and potassium are power minerals. They are solvents, and they control the
other minerals because they can dissolve them. This is a philosophical concept that is valid on a physical
level. In other words, they are regulators
of the other minerals by being powerful solvents.
Sodium is associated more with
and power. Some would say this
is also the expression of the love of the Creator.
It is represented by the adrenal glands, which are far more than just
the fight-or-flight glands, as is taught in physiology classes and medical
Potassium is more associated
with the quality of will. Will is a human
answer to the love of the Creator.
To be fully human, one must develop the will and direct it
properly. Development encourages
this in many ways. Potassium is
represented more by the thyroid gland, which has a lot to do with potassium regulation.
This philosophical diversion is
discussed in more detail in a separate article entitled Love And Will.
and protects potassium. When
sodium is high relative to potassium, for example, a person generally has plenty
of power or energy with which to function and express one’s will. When the ratio is low, however, there
is not enough love
or power to cover the willfulness of the person.
As a result, degeneration of the body always occurs. I call it a catabolic state, which just
means that more destruction occurs rather than more building up of the body.
The energy center system of the body. Sodium is more related to the first and second centers of the physical
body, which is the location of the adrenal glands. Potassium is more associated with
imbalances in the fourth and fifth centers of the physical body, which is where the
thyroid gland is found. For more
details, read The Energy Centers.
elevated or normal sodium/potassium ratio indicates better balance of the
energy centers, in general, than a low sodium/potassium ratio.
7. A directional
indicator of the oxidation rate.
A high sodium/potassium ratio is more associated with a increasing or
speeding up of the oxidation rate.
A low sodium/potassium ratio is more associated with a collapse or
slowing of the oxidation rate. It
is an excellent indicator, in fact.
This has a lot to do with the electrical aspect of this ratio, explained
Hormonal relationships are rough associations. However, they are very important and interesting
relationships. Among the adrenal
hormones, sodium is more associated with aldosterone (a pro-inflammatory hormone), while
potassium is more related to cortisol and cortisone (an
Sodium is more associated with
adrenal hormones, while potassium is more associated with the longer-acting
Among the female hormones,
sodium is more associated with estrogen levels, while potassium is more
associated with progesterone levels.
This can become important in conditions such as premenstrual syndrome
and estrogen dominance.
For this reason, a higher sodium/potassium
ratio may be more associated with estrogen dominance, although this is not
always the case, as many people with a low Na/K ratio also have some estrogen
dominance due to liver toxicity and sluggishness.
An inflammation indicator. Higher aldosterone
than cortisol, represented by a high sodium/potassium
ratio, is more associated with inflammation because aldosterone
is a more pro-inflammatory hormone, whereas cortisol
and cortisone are more anti-inflammatory hormones.
In contrast, lower aldosterone and higher cortisol
or cortisone levels, represented by a lower sodium/potassium ratio, is more
associated with a degenerative state, rather than an inflammatory state. This may also be called a more
catabolic state, or one in which the body is breaking down tissue faster than
it is regenerating tissue. It is
known that tissue breakdown and catabolism is one action of cortisol
A tissue breakdown or catabolism indicator. A low
sodium/potassium ratio is an important indicator of excessive catabolism or
Acute versus chronic stress. A high Na/K ratio is more associated
with more acute stress, while a low Na/K is more associated with chronic
Diabetes, heart disease and malignancy. A low Na/k ratio
is highly associated with blood sugar imbalance and diabetes. It is also associated with the
development of cancer and cardiovascular disease such as heart attacks and
An important trauma indicator. While not
always the case, a sodium/potassium ratio less than 1 in a human being is
associated with hidden or overt trauma.
This is discussed in more detail below.
An important emotional/mental indicator. A mildly
elevated sodium/potassium ratio is associated with a more positive response to
life, forward-looking, upbeat and moving ahead. A low sodium/potassium ratio is associated with a more
negative attitude, chronic stress, and negative emotions such as frustration,
resentment and hostility.
mineral relationships. Zinc raises potassium and lowers sodium. Copper, in contrast, raises sodium and
tends to lower potassium. This is
one way that these trace minerals control the levels of the macrominerals
Effects of other minerals on the
sodium/potassium ratio. Many minerals
raise the ratio such as manganese, chromium, and selenium. Others are iron, aluminum, nickel and
Vitamins can also affect the
ratio. Most of the B-complex
vitamins raise the ratio. Vitamins
A and D tend to lower it a little.
Vitamin E tends to raise it a lot, and at times dangerously if one takes
over 1000 iu of natural
vitamin E daily. Fatty acids
(vitamin F) may lower it. Vitamin
C tends to raise the ratio.
MORE DETAILS ABOUT A HIGH NA/K RATIO
As the sodium/potassium ratio
rises on a hair mineral analysis above about 5 or perhaps 6, more symptoms
involving this ratio are likely to arise.
These may include a tendency for acute stress, inflammation or pain somewhere in
the body. Other symptoms may include water retention, edema, and perhaps a higher blood
pressure or a labile or fluctuating blood pressure due to water retention
and/or kidney stress. These are
among the prominent physical symptoms that come with higher aldosterone
levels in relation to cortisol, for example.
When the ratio is above about
12, it is an indicator for liver and kidney stress in some cases. Interestingly, this is found in a low
sodium/potassium ratio as well.
Na/K Ratio and PMS.
In young adult women, a high sodium/potassium ratio can be more associated with
high-estrogen premenstrual tension with symptoms of inflammation, anger, acne,
bloating and breast swelling and tenderness. As a general rule, the sodium/potassium ratio rises before
the menstrual period. For much
more information about PMS, read Premenstrual Syndrome.
Emotional and mental symptoms of
a high sodium/potassium ratio. These may
include a tendency for anger or acute emotional stress.
A mildly high ratio may also indicate a forward-looking attitude, moving ahead
in life, and a more positive, future-oriented approach to life. For more, please read the article
entitled High Sodium/Potassium Ratio
on this site.
SYMPTOMS OF A LOW SODIUM/POTASSIUM RATIO
symptoms. Dr. Eck found that a low sodium/potassium ratio is associated
sugar and carbohydrate intolerance, allergies, adrenal weakness, chronic
infections, liver and kidney stress, cardiovascular stress, reduced immune
response and possibly malignancy, and a more catabolic state or state of tissue
The physical and physiological
imbalances above can be expanded upon.
For example, tissue breakdown can cause arthritis, ulcers, and
practically any other disease depending upon where the tissue breakdown
occurs. Cardiovascular stress can
easily lead to a heart attack or stroke, and so on.
and emotional symptoms.
Dr Eck found that a low sodium/potassium ratio is associated with
negative thinking and negative emotions in most cases. Prominent among these are frustration,
resentment and hostility. It
is also associated with reduced awareness in many cases, chronic stress, and
“beating one’s head against a wall when the door is nearby”.
When the ratio is less than 1,
often a person has hidden traumas that he or she is not aware of. The very low sodium/potassium ratio can
perhaps be a protection against feeling the pain of the trauma. This can make the person appear to be
less emotional, in fact. As the
Na/K ratio approaches about 1 during correction on a development program, the
traumas may surface, causing more feelings of anger, depression or others as
the awareness grows.
Degree of low sodium/potassium
ratio important. Both the physical and emotional
symptoms tend to become more pronounced as the sodium/potassium ratio becomes
lower. A ratio less than about 2
is moderate, while a ratio less than 1 is considered extreme.
For more, please read the
article entitled Low Sodium/Potassium Ratio
on this site.
Na/K. A sodium/potassium ratio less than 1:1
I call a trauma
Na/K. The reason is that any
time the Na/K ratio is this low, the person has
usually experienced a trauma.
Trauma points and the
sodium/potassium ratio. An interesting phenomenon is that there appear
to be two “trauma points”
associated with the Na/K ratio.
They are Na/K = 0.4 to 0.5 and Na/K = 0.9 to 1.0.
This knowledge is important
because a person
heals and passes through these trauma points, often feelings and memories of
the trauma will surface. Some of
our clients will stop the development program when this occurs because the
feelings are unpleasant.
Therefore, any time a person has
a sodium/potassium ratio less than about 0.9, and especially if it is less than
0.4, it is helpful to warn the person that he or she may experience unusual or
unpleasant thoughts or feelings as they heal and their Na/K ratio increases.
a low Na/K ratio. This is very helpful to evaluate
the number of adrenal burnout patterns are on a hair mineral analysis:
1. Na/K between 1.7 and 2.4 = single low ratio pattern
2. Na/K between 1 and 1.6 = double low ratio pattern
3. Na/K between 0.5 and 0.9 = triple low ratio pattern
4. Na/k less than 0.5 = quadruple low ratio pattern
High Na/K Ratio
Low Na/k Ratio
anger, rage, acute stress
frustration, resentment, hostility
reactive tissues and organism
reactive, more fatigued
Stage of stress
STRESS AND THE
stress. A high
sodium/potassium ratio on a hair analysis is more associated with acute stress. The reason is as follows:
stress causes increased adrenal gland activity.
2) This results in a rise in the secretion of the hormone aldosterone.
3) Aldosterone secretion causes
sodium to be retained in the body by the kidneys. Thus the sodium level in the soft tissues rises.
Sodium retention by aldosterone is part of the alarm reaction or fight-flight reaction to stress. Early in the alarm reaction, the
potassium level remains low. Thus,
on a tissue mineral test, the ratio of sodium to potassium is elevated early in the alarm stage
contrast, a low
sodium/potassium ratio is more associated with chronic stress and usually an exhaustion
stage of stress. This is because a
low sodium/potassium ratio is an indicator of adrenal weakness.
Acute stress or alarm reactions
in slow oxidation.
Some people ask how it is possible to have an alarm reaction if one is a slow
oxidizer or in an exhaustion stage of stress. The answer is that fast and slow oxidation
are indicators or a more yang or more yin body situation or
posturing. They are also
associated with the alarm and the exhaustion stages of stress according to the
stress theory of disease.
However, Dr. Eck found that
within slow oxidation or an exhaustion stage of stress or a yin condition, one can still mount an acute stress response. This is indicated by a high
sodium/potassium ratio and is a common occurrence. In fact, it is essential if a person is to move out of slow
Double acute stress. A fast oxidizer with a high sodium/potassium ratio is a
double inflammation pattern.
chronic stress. A slow
oxidizer with a low
sodium/potassium ratio means a double exhaustion pattern, which is definitely
MORE ON INFLAMMATION
Aldosterone is a pro-inflammatory hormone. It tends to increase inflammation in
the body. Cortisol
and cortisone, associated more with potassium levels, are anti-inflammatory hormones because they
diminish inflammation. The pro and
anti-inflammatory hormones must be in a good balance with each other for
A person with a high
sodium/potassium ratio may be secreting more aldosterone,
in relation to cortisol. Because there is more pro-inflammatory hormone, a tendency for
inflammation exists in the body.
This is particularly true when the sodium/potassium ratio is greater
Inflammation can take the form
of any 'itis', such as arthritis, bursitis, colitis,
or tendonitis. It is a tendency
for aches and pains. A high
sodium/potassium ratio is also a tendency for mental excitation. A ratio that persists between 3 and 6
suggests a forward-looking person.
A ratio greater than 6:1 suggests aggressiveness and anger.
SYMPATHETIC DOMINANCE – A SECONDARY INDICATOR IS A HIGH
A hair sodium/potassium ratio
above about 5 or 6 is also an indicator of a sympathetic dominant personality type. These are individuals who overuse the
sympathetic or fight-or-flight nervous system. They are usually very active, either mentally, physically or
both. The tendency is greater when
the Na/K ratio is above about 12.
These people may overdo on
exercise, run around a lot, worry a lot or, in some other way, keep themselves
in a fight-or-flight mode. Note
that the body becomes exhausted from this tendency, and has gone into a
of slow oxidation. However, the
person keeps right on using the sympathetic system instead of slowing
down. This prevents the recovery
Note: the more common indicator
for sympathetic dominance is a low potassium level, not the sodium/potassium
ratio. This is discussed more in
the article entitled Sympathetic
SOME TOXIC METALS CAN ELEVATE THE SODIUM/POTASSIUM RATIO
or overt copper, cadmium and
toxicity usually elevate sodium levels and can cause a higher sodium/potassium
ratio. This is true even if the
cadmium or mercury are hidden within body tissues and not revealed on the hair
test. As cadmium, copper or
mercury are eliminated, a retest mineral analysis will reveal an improved
An exception is if a retest is
a toxic metal elimination. The
sodium/potassium ratio may temporarily rise or fall as any toxic metal is being
eliminated. This occurs because
the metals irritate the kidneys.
This may cause the sodium/potassium ratio to be temporarily skewed. The ratio will normalize when the metal
elimination is complete.
ALUMINUM TOXICITY, ALONG WITH BIOUNAVAILABLE IRON AND/OR MANGANESE,
CAN ELEVATE THE SODIUM/POTASSIUM RATIO
higher ratio of sodium to potassium may also be due to an accumulation of toxic
amounts of aluminum in the body.
This will elevate the Na/K ratio, as will an excess of biologically
unavailable manganese or iron.
This is a very common situation, and true in practically all slow
oxidizers. The metals appear to be
in the form of oxides, which are damaging and can cause oxidant damage and
tissue irritation. They are called
on this website.
Manganese and iron are not toxic
metals. However, when present in
excess, usually in a biounavailable form, they seem
to raise the sodium level in relation to the potassium level. This may occur because they irritate
the adrenal glands, or perhaps the kidneys, or perhaps other structures, in
such a way as to alter the balance of sodium in relation to potassium.
We know this because as excesses
of these metals are eliminated, the sodium to potassium ratio decreases, often
amigos. Since they are often found together in
the body, these metals are called the amigos. Some other minerals can be in an amigo or oxide form,
including chromium, selenium, copper, nickel, boron, vanadium, molybdenum,
cobalt and perhaps others, as well.
One can read more about iron, manganese and aluminum in the article
entitled The Three Amigos.
SALT-EATING AND THE SODIUM/POTASSIUM RATIO
Many people assume that a high
sodium/potassium ratio indicates an excessive salt intake. While possibly true, in many instances
salt eating has little impact upon the sodium/potassium ratio.
A high ratio frequently occurs
in people who consume no salt whatsoever!
The main causes of a high sodium/potassium ratio are excessive aldosterone secretion due to stress or anger, toxic metals
or a zinc and magnesium deficiency.
Salt-eating plays a secondary role.
We recommend everyone avoid
table salt, which is a very poor quality food. One may have sea salt (unrefined salt), which contains more
magnesium and trace elements.
We recommend limiting salt
slightly when the sodium/potassium ratio is above 12, especially if blood
pressure is elevated. However, it
is not usually necessary to eliminate all salt from the diet. Also, sea salt is often tolerated much better than table salt.
KIDNEY AND LIVER STRESS AND THE IMMUNE RESPONSE
A sodium/potassium ratio greater
than about 10 or less than about 1.5 often indicates kidney stress, liver
stress and perhaps an impaired immune response.
BIOUNAVAILABLE SODIUM AND POTASSIUM
This is a more advanced
topic. It appears that sodium and
potassium may not always act as solvents and regulators in the body. It appears that at times, a normal or
even an elevated hair sodium or potassium level, for example, could be so due
to kidney stress or perhaps other factors. It may not be quite as bioavailable
to the body for certain purposes.
As toxic metals are removed, the
level might decrease, or it might rise on a retest hair mineral analysis. Even if it decreases, the metabolic
effect of the sodium and/or potassium may increase. The explanation may be that the original level did not
reflect all bioavailable sodium and potassium,
whereas on the retest, the sodium and/or potassium may have become more
available for certain metabolic purposes.
This needs more research.
COMBINATION PATTERNS INVOLVING THE SODIUM/POTASSIUM RATIO
These are many and include:
1. The bowl
pattern (an elevated Ca/Mg ratio and a low Na/K ratio).
2. The hill
pattern (a low Ca/Mg ratio with an elevated Na/K ratio).
3. Double high ratio pattern (an
elevated Ca/Mg ratio with an elevated Na/K ratio).
4. Double low ratio pattern (a low Ca/Mg ratio
with a low Na/K ratio).
5. Sympathetic dominance (often an elevated
Na/K ratio is part of or reinforces this important pattern).
6. Fast with inversion (fast
oxidation with a low Na/K ratio).
MORE ADVANCED CONCEPTS
ratio of sodium to potassium in the soft tissues of a human being is probably
the most critical ratios to consider when interpreting a hair mineral
analysis. I am not sure why this
is so, but it was an absolute truth for my teacher, Dr. Paul C. Eck. I have come to agree with him, even if
all the reasons for it are not clear.
It is primarily for this reason that Dr. Eck insisted that the hair must
not be washed at the laboratory.
Washing the hair at the lab always tends to skew the sodium and
potassium levels and ratio because sodium and potassium are highly water soluble elements.
true for animals. The sodium/potassium ratio is not just
critical for human beings. It also
appears to be critical for animals of all species, as well.
true for plants and foods. In fact, it is true for plants.
true for the soil and for rocks and other minerals. This is quite extraordinary and speaks of a
universality of the ratio of sodium to potassium in all of nature, both living
The ratio in human beings is about 2.5. In animals it is about 0.5. In plants, it tends to be between 0.1 and 0.2. In the soil it tends to be about
0.12-0.15. In minerals, it tends
to be roughly 0.02 although it varies with each mineral. You will notice that as one moves up
the ladder of the complexity of life, the ratio goes up by about a factor of 5
each time. This may be
significant, and will be discussed later in this article.
In food, the ratio varies a lot, depending on the nature of the food and
how it was grown, where it was grown, etc.
AND THE NA/K RATIO
In relationships between men and women, the ratio matters, too. It should be about 10-12:1, man to
woman, yang to yin. However, it
cannot be measured in the sodium and potassium in the hair. Instead, I am told it is measured in the
ratio of indium to rubidium. (I have not confirmed this, however.)
This may be called the “relationship ratio”, as it has a lot to do with
the happiness of a couple. Now let
us examine why the sodium/potassium ratio may be so important and its meaning
at a physics level.
Oddly, cancer can raise a low sodium/potassium ratio. Cancer is associated with excessive
iron, in some cases, and iron can raise the ratio. Estrogen may also raise the sodium/potassium ratio, at
times, and it is associated with the growth of trophoblast cells. The trophoblast is a normal cell
line that can cause cancer when it grows in the wrong place or time.
agents raise the sodium/potassium ratio.
In some cases, this is known, while in others the action of the drug, or
other anti-cancer substances or herbs, is not well understood.
Cancer, however, is much more than just a low sodium/potassium ratio
because we see many people with a low ratio who do not have a lot of
cancer. However, Dr. Eck found
that a low sodium/potassium ratio is associated with more cancer.
POTASSIUM, A BASIC TRANSMUTATION
One theory as to why the sodium/potassium ratio is so important has to
do with the theory of biological transmutation of the elements. This theory was put forth most eloquently by a French
scientist of the twentieth century, Dr. Louis Kervran. He is the author of a wonderful, easily
understood book entitled Biological
Transmutations. The theory
holds that the action of certain hormones, enzymes and/or micro-organisms
can, under the right circumstances, change one element into another at low
temperatures and pressures.
Dr. Kervran offers a number of proofs of
this theory that, at least to my mind, are hard to disprove. They include such experiments as noting
that chickens excrete much more calcium in their egg shells than the chickens
take ingest in their food. How is
this possible, we should be asking?
Perhaps Dr. Kervran is wrong, but I have not
seen experiments or proof to the contrary. Dr. Kervran also includes the
chemical formulae in his book to suggest how the transmutations work, and many
Chapter 6 in the book is entitled Principal Transmutations, and a sub-heading is
Sodium/Potassium Ratio. In
this chapter, Dr. Kervran notes that the adrenal
hormone aldosterone appears capable of transmuting
sodium into potassium. As proof,
he notes that in people with Addison’s disease, a condition of low aldosterone, the sodium level declines and the potassium
AND MOVING ENERGY DOWNWARD THROUGH THE BODY
Moving or pushing etheric energy downward
from head to feet increases the Na/K by moving electrons downward toward the
feet, leaving the head more electro-positive and the feet more
electro-negative. This effectively
raises the Na/K ratio throughout the body, and especially in the head. This topic is critical and discussed in
several separate articles entitled Downward Moving
Energy And Healing and Meditation For Healing.
IN THE NA/K RATIO DURING DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
It is very common for the sodium/potassium ratio to move up and down
repeatedly when a person follows a development program. This is often seen on retest minerals
The rising and falling of the Na/K ratio during the program is not a
problem, at all. In fact, it is
normal and good. It occurs, for
example, if one eliminates a toxic metal, perhaps, or if one retraces an
infection, or perhaps if one retraces a trauma that caused anger or fear. Please know that such changes are
absolutely normal on a development program.
When it occurs, the development program must be altered by
substituting zinc for Limcomin if the ratio rises
above 2.5, or by substituting Limcomin for zinc if
the ratio falls below 2.5.
change in the Na/K ratio before it is time for a retest hair mineral analysis. Once
in a while, the Na/K ratio changes from high to low or vice versa, or varies a
lot in some other way before it is time for a retest mineral analysis. Many times, the person begins to feel
badly, as a rule, because the development program is no longer correct.
If zinc is no longer required, often the person becomes very tired and
perhaps depressed. If Limcomin is no longer required, one may become irritable,
angry or have pain somewhere in the body.
If you suspect this has occurred, please contact your development
consultant and ask that I check to see if your program needs altering. I can sometimes do this and figure out
a new program without needing a hair analysis, although it is not as accurate.
More trimethylglycine when the sodium/potassium ratio is less than 0.4. If the sodium/potassium ratio is less than about 0.4 mg%, a little more TMG is often helpful. For more on TMG, please read Trimethylglycine on this website.